CHARACTERIZATIONS OF WCOME
Iodine value of WCOME was investigated according on ISO 3961-2009.
Acid value of WCOME was tested according on NF EN ISO 660-1999.
Kinematic viscosity was detected following ISO 6321-2002.
Density of the waste cooking oil methyl ester was investigated following the Chinese standard GB/T 5518-2008. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) was recorded on a Nicolet iS10 FT-IR (Nicolet Instrument Corporation, USA) fourier transformed infrared spectrophotometer.
The spectra were acquired in the range of 4000 cm−1 to 500 cm−1 at a resolution of 4 cm−1. Peaks in the spectra were labeled automatically using OMNIC software (Thermo Electron Corporation, USA). 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance(NMR) of intermediate products and self-plasticization PVC were performed on an AV-300 NMR spectrometer (Bruker Instrument Corporation, Germany) at a frequency of 400 MHz.
The process was carried out using CDCl3 as solvent and tetrametnylsilane (TMS) as an internal standard. The NMR data was processed using MestReNova software (Santiago de Compostela, Spain).
The average molar mass and dispersity of neat PVC and self-plasticization PVC materials were investigated on a Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) measurement (Waters, USA) at 30 °C (flow rate: 1 mL/min, column: mixed PL gel 300 × 718 mm, 25 μm) using HPLC-grade THF as solvent. Neat PVC and self-plasticization PVC were brought into THF solution with concentration of 1–5 mg/mL.
The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests were carried out using a TG209F1 TGA thermal analysis instruments (Netzsch Instrument Corporation, Germany) in N2 atmosphere (50 mL/min) at a heating rate of 10 °C/min. The data was collected while the oven temperature was ranging from 40 °C to 600 °C.
Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurement was carried out under N2 atmosphere using a NETZSCH DSC 200 PC analyzer (Netzsch Instrument Corporation, Germany).
The temperature was over a range of −40–120 °C at a heating of 20 °C/min. 5–10 mg neat PVC and self-plasticization PVC were weight and sealed in a 40 uL aluminum crucible, and immediately detected using DSC measurement. The DSC data was collected from first cycle of heating. The mechanical properties including tensile modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break were investigated according ISO 527-1-2012 at 25 °C by using an E43.104 Universal Testing Machine (MTS Instrument Corporation, China) at a strain rate of 20 mm/min. All the datas was was collected using average value of five parallel tests. The leaching tests were performed were carried out according on ASTM D5227. Neat PVC and self-plasticization PVC films after weighting were immersed in n-hexane at 50 °C for 2 h. These PVC films were dried and reweighed. The extraction loss was calculated according to the Equation (1) and taken average value of five experiments.
[Math Processing Error]Degreeofmigration=[(W1−W2)/W1)]×100
W1 = initial weight of test films, and W2 = final weight of test PVC films.
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