WCO CAN BE MADE INTO PLASTICIZER

The waste cooking oil (WCO) production from the catering industry and food processing industry causes serious environmental, economic and social problems. However, WCO can be used for the preparation of fine chemicals such as internal plasticizer. With this aim, this work is focused on preparing internal plasticizer by using WCO and determining technical viability of non-migration poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) materials. The mannich base of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) was synthesized from WCO via esterification, interesterification and mannich reaction, which was used to produce self-plasticization PVC materials as an internal plasticizer. The results showed that the PVC was plasticized effectively. Self-plasticization PVC films showed no migration in n-hexane, but 15.7% of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) leached from DOP/PVC(50/50) system into n-hexane. These findings transformed the traditional plastic processing technology and obtained cleaner production of no migration plasticizer from WCO.

 

Introduction

Waste cooking oil (WCO) is an oil-based substance, which has been used to make foods, but no longer suitable for eating. WCO is mainly generated from these urban areas with high density population and high consumption of refined vegetable oils. WCO production from the catering industry and food processing industry causes serious environmental, economic and social problems. However, it can be used and transformed into value-added products such as biodiesel. The unique composition of WCO is triglyceride and fatty acid, which can be transformed into biodiesel production via conventional transterification method. The strategy for transterification of triglyceride and fatty acid has been widely investigated. It has been well-reported that WCO acted very well as alternative to petrochemical resources for biodiesel production. The strategy of biodiesel production from WCO with low price about internally plasticized PVC materials from WCO is one of the best ways to utilize it efficiently and economically.

Plasticizer is an important polymer additive, which has been widely used in plastics, rubbers, adhesives, cellulose and so on. The common used plasticizers are phthalate esters, accounting for 70% of the global plasticizer demand in 2014. However, the phthalate esters are easy to migrate from polymer matrix during processing and using with increasing time, which decreases the service life of polymer products, as well as potential toxicity to human body. Recently, epoxidized vegetable oil, polymer plasticizer, polyol ester and phosphate plasticizer have been reported as alternative plasticizers, which suppresses the migration from PVC products in a certain degree, but epoxidized vegetable oil, polyol ester and phosphate plasticizer will migrate from PVC products with increasing time. The effective strategy to avoid the migration of plasticizers is covalent attachment of the plasticizer onto the PVC backbone.

The production of internally plasticized PVC materials can transform the traditional plastic processing technology, which mainly includs hot mixing, dry mixing and solvent casting method. The hot mixing and dry mixing with high energy consumption and undermixing, and solvent casting method with a amount of organic reagents restricts their further application. The internally plasticized PVC materials can be directly produced plastic products without further plasticization process, which will spur a revolution in plastic processing technology. In this study, mannich base of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) was synthesized from WCO, the chemical structure was detected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), which was used as a novel non-migration plasticizer for self-plasticization PVC materials. The structures of self-plasticization PVC materials were investigated with FT-IR, 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The properties of the PVC materials such as Tg, thermal stability, migration resistance and mechanical properties were also investigated. These properties of self-plasticization PVC were compared with neat PVC and PVC/DOP system, and the internal plasticization mechanism was also discussed. The modified PVC materials were expected to be commercial application in producing these products with high requirement in migration resistance such as food packing, toys and medical devices. The technical viability of non-migration PVC was determined, and the strategy was expected to improving the traditional plastic processing technology.


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